Saturday, February 20, 2010

Upside down world map

South and North revisited

Friday, February 19, 2010

A Poem from "Before Sunrise"

Poem from a man by a river recited for them.

Daydream delusion, limousine eyelash / Oh baby with your pretty face / Drop a tear in my wineglass / Look at those big eyes / See what you mean to me / Sweet-cakes and milkshakes / I\'m a delusion angel / I\'m a fantasy parade / I want you to know what I think / Don\'t want you to guess anymore / You have no idea where I came from / We have no idea where we\'re going / Lodged in life / Like branches in a river/ Flowing downstream / Caught in the current / I carry you / You\'ll carry me / That\'s how it could be / Don\'t you know me? / Don\'t you know me by now?

Thursday, February 18, 2010

Full Employment, Universal Social Insurance, and an Ultimate Safety Net in Sweden

Sweden’s welfare policy is based on an economic policy geared to full employment for both women and men and a universal social insurance system. The main aim of the Government’s labour market policy is a well-functioning labour market, full employment and satisfactory economic growth. The policy is based on the principle of providing incentives to work and improve skills. If there is a shortage of work, the unemployed are offered suitable training or other measures to help them find a job.
To promote the achievement of these goals, labour market policy aims to help match job-seekers and vacancies as soon as possible, to improve their knowledge and skills, to support those who find it hardest to find a job and to provide income security during a transitional period of involuntary unemployment. An ‘activity guarantee’ provides additional support on a full-time basis to enable persons who have been excluded from the labour market for a long time to find a new job or start studying. Apart from the unemployed, part-time workers and persons who wish to increase their working time are eligible for the Guarantee.
Welfare systems must also be appropriately designed to achieve high employment. Appropriate social and labour market insurance schemes contribute to growth and increased security for individuals. The same applies to access to child care for all children. The Swedish social insurance system is universal and is largely based on the principle of compensation for loss of income. The entire population of Sweden enjoys individual rights regardless of their social or professional position, marital status or sex. They are also eligible for many benefits regardless of whether or not they are at work. Unemployment insurance is voluntary, but there is also a basic protection against unemployment for all those who are qualified on the basis of previous employment.
The social insurance system provides income-related compensation for loss of income. The following are examples of income-related benefits: compensation for parents who are at home from work to look after small children (parental benefit), compensation for persons who cannot work on account of sickness (sickness benefit), an allowance for persons with permanently reduced work capacity (sickness/activity allowance), compensation for persons who are injured or become sick at work (work injury compensation) and old-age pensions. In several cases there is a guaranteed benefit level that is paid to insured persons with a low income or no income. The social insurance system also includes allowances for various situations, e.g. child benefit and housing allowances.
A universal insurance system with income-related benefits was considered a better alternative than a system with low minimum benefit levels. Universal systems ensure that people who do not work for a temporary period as a result of sickness, unemployment etc. or who no longer work owing to invalidity or old age continue to receive an income that allows them to maintain their standard of living. A universal welfare system is not only less costly to administer than a system with means-tested benefits, it also ensures long-term distributive effects and high legitimacy.
The goal of economic family policy is to reduce the differences between families with and without children within the framework of the universal welfare system. Family policy is designed with a view to the best interests of children. One basic principle is to seek to create a level playing field for all children. This is achieved by supporting the parents so that they can invest in their children’s welfare while they are growing up and by making it possible to combine parenting with work and study.
The social services are ultimately responsible for ensuring that the local authority inhabitants get the help and support they need. This may be provided in the form of financial assistance, care of children and adolescents, care of substance abusers or other measures to help the most disadvantaged. The social services are also responsible for care of the elderly and disabled. Apart from providing services, they have sole authority to act in certain situations, for example to intervene to protect children at risk. The guiding principles for the social services are a holistic approach and voluntariness, the view that prevention is better than cure and the will to make the most of the individual’s own resources. These principles provide guidance both for the social services’ practical activities and for the view of humanity that governs their activities. Children’s best interests and their right to express their views are fundamental principles in all matters affecting children.
The right to assistance for subsistence or other living expenses is provided by the Social Services Act. The Act guarantees individuals the right to support and assistance from society when their circumstances make such action necessary for some reason. A subsistence allowance is provided for reasonable living expenses. These ‘reasonable expenses’ are calculated on the basis of a nationally applicable norm. Appeals may be made to an administrative court against the rejection of an application for assistance or any other decision taken under the Social Services Act.
About one-fifth of the population of Sweden consists of people who were born, or have at least one parent who was born, in another country. Everyone who lives in Sweden has the same rights, obligations and opportunities regardless of ethnic origin. This is to be taken into account in the design and formulation of government policy in general. The goals and approaches adopted in integration policy are to be applied in all social sectors. The aim of integration policy is to help people so that they can support themselves and play their part in society, to defend basic democratic values, to promote equal rights and opportunities for women and men and to combat racism, xenophobia and ethnic discrimination. The long term object of efforts to prevent and combat racism etc. is laid down in the national action plan against racism, xenophobia, homophobia and discrimination that has been adopted by the Government. The National Integration Office has overall responsibility for ensuring that the goals and approaches applied in integration policy are implemented in various sectors.
Refugees who arrive in Sweden are offered induction programmes, since they and other persons in need of protection often need a great deal of support during their first months in Sweden. The purpose of the package of measures implemented during the first few months after their arrival is to make it possible for them to find accommodation and a regular job so that can support themselves and to acquire a good knowledge of Swedish as soon as possible so that they can participate in social life. Induction programmes for new refugees are an important means of smoothing the path towards integration. Local authorities are responsible for providing these programmes with the support of the National Integration Office, which also oversees the programmes.

Sweden’s action plan against poverty and social exclusion 2003-2005, pp.16,17,19

On Homelessnes

Random notes on Homelessnes (with an Industrial modern society context.)
Social Exclusion and Poverty Reduction Theory and Practice Class.
MGS, Spring 2010

According to the Stewart B. McKinney Act, 42 U.S.C. § 11301, et seq. (1994), a person is considered homeless who "lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate night-time residence; and... has a primary night time residency that is: (A) a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations... (B) an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized, or (C) a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings." The term “homeless individual” does not include any individual imprisoned or otherwise detained pursuant to an Act of Congress or a state law." 42 U.S.C. § 11302(c).

The education subtitle of the McKinney-Vento Act includes a more comprehensive definition of homelessness. This statute states that the term ‘homeless child and youth’ (A) means individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence... and (B) includes: (i) children and youth who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, and includes children and youth who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to lack of alternative adequate accommodations; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; are abandoned in hospitals; or are awaiting foster care placement; (ii) children and youth who have a primary nighttime residence that is a private or public place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings... (iii) children and youth who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings, and (iv) migratory children...who qualify as homeless for the purposes of this subtitle because the children are living in circumstances described in clauses (i) through (iii). McKinney-Vento Act sec. 725(2); 42 U.S.C. 11435(2).

Other federal agencies, such as the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), interpret the McKinney-Vento definition to include only those persons who are on the streets or in shelters and persons who face imminent eviction (within a week) from a private dwelling or institution and who have no subsequent residence or resources to obtain housing. This interpretation of homelessness serves large, urban communities where tens of thousands of people are literally homeless. However, it may prove problematic for those persons who are homeless in areas of the country, such as rural areas, where there are few shelters. People experiencing homelessness in these areas are less likely to live on the street or in a shelter, and more likely to live with relatives in overcrowded or substandard housing.

The following are factors which contribute to social exclusion and homelessness:
1. Family breakdown, disputes with parents, step parented families;
2. Low educational achievement or learning difficulties;
3. Child abuse;
4. Time in local authority care;
5. Poverty;
6. Unemployment;
7. Domestic violence;
8. Divorce or relationship breakdown;
9. Loss of a local network of friends and social support networks;
10. Alcohol or drug addiction;
11. Mental health problems;
12. Shortage of low cost social housing units and housing association properties.
13. Contact with the criminal justice system especially during childhood (Randall and Brown, 1999; Smith, Gilford and O’Sullivan, 1998; Dane, 1998; Ravenhill, 1999).

Homelessness and social exclusion are rarely caused by one single factor. It is the accumulation of several factors and the way these factors interact that results in people becoming socially excluded from the society they live in.

1. Who is Homeless?, NCH Fact Sheet #3 Published by the National Coalition for the Homeless, August 2007
2. Megan Ravenhill, Homelessness and Vulnerable Young People: A social audit of KeyChange Charity’s supported accommodation, The ESRC Research Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion (CASE).

Monday, February 15, 2010

10 Alasan untuk melakukan kajian Interdisiplin

Salah satu yang membedakan manusia dengan makhluk hidup lainnya adalah kemampuannya untuk mengembangkan penggunaan alat (teknologi) untuk menunjang kehidupannya. Penggunaan alat diinterpretasikan sebagai tanda intelijensia, bahkan muncul teori-teori yang menyatakan penggunaan alat telah menstimuli beberapa aspek evolusi manusia- terurama pada perkembangan otak manusia. Singkat kata teknologi dan perkembangan peradaban manusia berkorelasi sangat positif. Dan mempersingkat cerita ratusan atau puluhan ribu tahun perkembangan peradaban manusia dan teknologi, telah tiba kita pada masa kita, era kapitalisme.

Kita hidup bukan pada era prasejarah, era perbudakan klasik, ataupun era raja-raja feudalism. Kini kita hidup pada era Kapitalisme lanjut, dimana hubungan kerja menggunakan sistem upah buruh. Di bawah Kapitalisme, akumulasi modal yang agresif membuat proses industrialisasi semakin kompleks. Kompleksitas industrialisasi ini terlihat dari semakin kompleksnya pembagian kerja (division of labour) yaitu spesialisasi dalam hubungan kerja dalam tugas dan peran yang spesifik, bertujuan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas kerja

Harmonis dengan perkembangan industri, berkembang juga sektor yang menopang industri tersebut yaitu sektor produksi pengetahuan. Sekarang, kita sudah tidak lagi memikirkan lagi adanya kemungkinan menjadi ilmuwan renaisans a la Leonardo da Vince. Perlahan tapi pasti pada abad ke-19, idealism kesatuan badan ilmu pengetahuan, --ketika seorang ilmuwan menguasai seluruh bagian ilmu dan seni--, terdesak oleh spesialisasi. Aggregat pengetahuan manusia yang membesar, dan fakta bahwa tiap manusia diberkahi seperangkat perilaku yang unik, mengakibatkan ilmuwan dan seniman terdampar pada kompetensi yang semakin menyempit.

Tidak seorang pun pada masa kini yang secara rasional mengaku bahwa mereka mengetahui semua hal dalam semua bidang, atau bahkan semuanya pada bidangnya sendiri. Ketimbang berusaha memahami disiplin ilmu yang lain, kita diterjang oleh arus badai informasi baru setiap hari. Untuk melindungi diri dari tenggelam dan memiliki satu pijakan, kita berusaha menambatkan diri pada pulau pembelajaran dan pengetahuan yang semakin sempit.[1] Dan tidak jarang muncul arogansi berbasis disiplin ilmu, ketika semua berusaha melindungi teritorinya, menolak berkomunikasi satu sama lain, dan menolak intrusi disiplin ilmu lainnya.[2]

Perkembangan di masyarakat kontemporer kini menciptakan perubahan lanskap dalam produksi pengetahuan. Perkembangan ini termasuk perubahan peran dalam institusi pengetahuan (akademik) dalam kerangka industri pengetahuan global; yaitu meningkatnya permintaan atas produksi pengetahuan untuk mengatasi permasalahan lingkungan hidup secara nasional dan global; dan perubahan dalam demografi pengetahuan karena pendidikan dan informasi menjadi lebih terdistribusi.

Upaya untuk menjawab tantangan baru perubahan konteks ini adalah praktek lintas batas disiplin ilmu. Russel et.all mengidentifikasi beberapa bentuk lintas batas disiplin ilmu yaitu transdisipliner, multidisipliner, dan interdisipliner.[3] Interdisiplineritas yaitu ketika masalah yang bertumpang tindih antar disiplin ilmu dikaji oleh ilmuwan dari dua atau lebih disiplin ilmu. Multidisiplin yaitu ketika spesialis berbagai disiplin ilmu bekerja sama dengan mempertahankan perspektif dan pendekatan disiplin ilmu mereka. Sementara itu, transdisplineritas lebih maju dalam meleburkan batas-batas disiplin ilmu. Karakteristik potensial dari transdisiplineritas termasuk, fokus pada permasalahan (riset berasal dan dikontekstualisasikan dengan masalah di dunia nyata), berkembangnya metodologi dan kolaborasi antar aktor yang luas. Sebagai contoh dalam transdisiplin adalah berkembangnya disiplin ilmu baru Human Ecology yang melebur teori, komponen, dan pengetahuan dari disiplin ilmu lain seperti Ekonomi, Politik, Teknik Lingkungan.

Dalam upaya mempermudah pendefinisian interdisipliner, Nissani membagi Interdisiplineritas dalam berbagai komponen seperti multidisciplinarity, pluridisciplinarity, crossdisciplinarity, dan transdisciplinarity.[4] Sebagai pendahuluan, ia melihat disiplin sebagai wadah pengalaman manusia yang khusus dan memiliki komunitas ahlinya sendiri. Interdisipliner dilihat sebagai menggabungkan komponen-komponen tertentu dari dua atau lebih disiplin ilmu.

Dalam diskursus akademik, interdisiplineritas mencakup empat bidang: pengetahuan, riset, pendidikan dan teori. Pengetahuan interdisipliner melibatkan kesamaan komponen dari dua atau lebih disiplin. Riset interdisipliner menggabungkan komponen dari dua atau lebih disiplin dalam rangka mencari pengetahuan, praktek dan ekspresi artistik yang baru. Pendidikan interdisipliner menggabungkan komponen dua atau lebih disiplin dalam satu program instruksi. Teori interdisipliner mengambil pengetahuan, riset dan pendidikan interdisipliner sebagai objek kajian utamanya.

Tidak jarang kita menemukan penolakan terhadap pengetahuan yang bersifat interdisipliner atau riset yang merefleksikan kesalahpahaman dalam pentingnya kontribusinya pada (1) perkembangan pengetahuan dan keilmuan, (2) keuntungan sosial bagi masyarakat dan (3) individu. Tulisan ini merupakan pembelaan atas pengetahuan dan riset interdisipliner, yang sangat penting karena 10 alasan-alasan berikut:[5]

1. Kreativitas membutuhkan pengetahuan interdisipliner.

Proses penemuan kerapkali mencakup tindakan menggabungkan ide yang sebelumnya tampak tidak berkaitan. Pemikiran yang kreatif kerap menghasilkan ide yang tidak lazim tapi membuahkan permutasi yang produktif. Aspek yang digabungkan bisa berasal dari satu disiplin, atau berasal dari permutasi ide dari dua atau lebih disiplin.

2. Pendatang baru seringkali memberikan kontribusi yang penting pada bidangnya yang baru

Observasi pendatang baru dapat membuka mata atas hal-hal yang baru. Misalnya di bidang antropologi, pendatang baru bisa melihat aspek aspek budaya yang kasat mata bagi penduduk asli. Para pendatang pun lebih cermat untuk tidak mengabaikan anomali.

3. Penganut disiplin ilmu tertentu seringkali melakukan kesalahan yang hanya bisa terdeteksi oleh orang yang memahami dua atau lebih disiplin ilmu

Pengamatan lintas disiplin berguna karena jurang antar disiplin ilmu terlalu luas. Sehingga tidak jarang ilmuwan mengambil kesimpulan yang bertabrakan dengan kesimpulan di disiplin ilmu lain akibat generalisasi atau tidak peka pada disiplin ilmu lain tersebut.

4. Banyak sekali topik-topik riset yang jatuh di persimpangan beragam disiplin ilmu.

Ruscio berargumen bahwa disiplin ilmu pada prakteknya tidak memiliki batas yang jelas selayaknya harapan para teoretisi disiplin ilmu tersebut.[6] Serta peneliti disipliner tampak mampu mengisi celah kosong yang produktif sehingga area abu-abu ilmu pengetahuan bisa diisi.

5. Banyak permasalahan intelektual, sosial dan praktikal memerlukan pendekatan interdisipliner.

Coba bayangkan sejarah pembangunan suatu negara. Beberapa tahun dan ribuan buku akan membawa kita pada kesimpulan, kebanyakan penulis gagal memahami secara keseluruhan karena terpaku pada satu disiplin ilmu saja. Kita harus ingat permasalahan yang muncul belum tentu datang dalam batasan satu disiplin ilmu saja. Misalnya reduksi polusi, ini bukan sekedar persoalan teknologi yang lebih baik saja, tetapi berkaitan dengan psikologi industri, efisiensi ekonomi, budaya pola hidup masyarakat, kebijakan politik, dan sebagainya.

Seorang negarawan bisa melakukan kesalahan karena tidak memahami aspek teknis, sosial atau alamiah dari suatu kebijakan: sangat berbahaya memiliki dua atau lebih budaya yang tidak berkomunikas. ilmuwan bisa memberikan saran yang buruk dan pengambil keputusan tidak bisa membedakan mana yang baik dan buruk. Sejarah membuktikan bahayanya rekomendasi kebijakan yang terlalu sempit oleh mereka yang memiliki pengetahuan yang luas atau sebaliknya. Dalam dunia spesialisasi, seorang berpendidikan tinggi bisa tidak menyadari dimensi sosial dan moral dari tindakannya. Kompartementalisasi, selain rendahnya pendidikan adalah musuh besar yang hanya bisa ditaklukan oleh pendidikan yang menyeluruh.

6. Pengetahuan dan riset interdisipliner berguna akan mengingatkan kita akan idealnya kesatuan badan ilmu pengetahuan.

Tentu saja sekarang ini mustakhil untuk menguasai semua disiplin ilmu sekaligus. Tapi bila kita keliru mengartikan pengetahuan disiplin dengan kebajikan; jika kita lupa seberapa banyak kita tidak tahu; jika kita lupa seberapa besar kita tidak bisa tahu; jika kita tidak menginginkan, setidaknya sebagai prinsip, idealitas kesatuan badan ilmu pengetahuan; kita akan kehilangan sesuatu yang penting. Interdisiplineritas membantu kita mengingat hal ini, bahwa komponen komponen pengetahuan manusia merupakan pecahan dari keseluruhan bangunan pengetahuan.

7. Pelaksana praktek interdisipliner menikmati fleksibilitas yang lebih besar dalam risetnya.

Kebanyakan bidang ilmu mengalami kemajuan yang pesat, diikuti dengan periode stagnasi. Pada saat saat ini dalam konteks pribadi, ilmuwan yang berani pindah ke disiplin ilmu yang baru akan menikmati fleksibilitas dan kebebasan baru dalam karir mereka, sebuah imbalan personal untuk kesedian melintasi batas disiplin ilmu.

8. Ketimbang terpaku pada satu disiplin ilmu yang sempit, penganut interdisipliner sering merasakan sensasi intelektual yang mirip dengan penjelajahan di lahan yang baru.

Pada titik tertentu, imbal balik dari proses input tertentu mengecil secara progresif. Butuh berjam jam untuk belajar catur, dan tahunan untuk menjadi ahli. Hal serupa terjadi dalam dunia pembelajaran. Misalnya seorang ahli anatomi serangga dalam rangka menjadi ahli bisa jadi tidak pernah membaca Tolstoy atau tidak pernah mendengar Vivaldi akibat alokasi waktu yang ketat. Hidup ini telalu singkat untuk menjadi ahli dalam banyak bidang sekaligus. Agar menjadi ahli dalam bidangnya mereka berakhir hanya mengeksplorasi satu minat saja. Interdisiplineritas, kontras dengannya, selamanya memperlakukan diri mereka dengan intelektualitas yang setara dengan menjelajahi daerah eksotik.

9. Pelaksana ilmu Interdisipliner bisa menjembatani jurang komunikasi dalam akademi modern, karenanya membantu memobilisasi sumberdaya intelektual yang besar dalam membangun rasionalitas yang lebih besar.

Universitas modern hanya memiliki efektifitas yang sedang sebagai agen perubahan sosial. Kenyataannya dunia akademik menikmati kesuksesan yang minim dalam memobilisasi sumberdaya intelektualnya untuk memperbaiki masyarakat. Alasannya cukup jelas: fragmentasi disiplin ilmu membuat akademik pasif dihadapan dunia yang sewenang-wenang. Dalam komunitas dengan bahasa yang berlainan diperlukan komunikasi yang efektif untuk menggabungkan kekuatannya. Interdisiplineritas, dengan mengingatkan kita pada ideal kesatuan badan pengetahuan, dengan menguasai dua atau lebih bahasa akademik, bisa berkontribusi pada integrasi budaya akademik.

10. Dengan menjembatani disiplin ilmu yang terfragmentasi, interdisipliner bisa berperan dalam membela kebebasan akademik.

Penegakan nilai ekstrinsik akuntabilitas,nilai intrinsik pencarian reputasi dan kontrol kualitas dari rekan sejawat bisa mengarah kepada perbudakan intelektual dan kemudian pada kemandulan akademik. Akibat fragmentasi disiplin ilmu, akademisi kerap gagal mendeteksi ancaman besar pada kebebasan akademik ini. Pemahaman pentingnya kerjasama bisa menjadi pelindung melawan birokratisme yang berusaha menerapkan pengawasan yang ketat, berdasarkan indikator performa. Karenanya cukup penting untuk menjaga kebebasan seorang akademisi dalam memilih apa yang akan dikaji dan apa yang tidak.

Pendekatan lintas disiplin ilmu ini juga memiliki kelemahan. Pertama, untuk mendapatkan jarak pandang yang luas, seorang bisa jadi mengorbankan waktu untuk menjadi ahli di satu bidang. Kedua, perlu dihindari upaya melakukan generalisasi yang naïf akibat pengabungan beberapa disiplin ilmu. Ketiga, Ilmuwan yang dikategorikan lintas batas menghadapi hambatan profesi yang masih memprioritaskan spesialisasi disiplin ilmu. Keempat, interdisiplineritas kerap dicap sebagai kompetitor oleh spesialis disiplin ilmu.

Untuk mengatasi kelemahan ini haruslah melakukan perubahan cara berpikir. Akademik perlu memberi ruang bagi tumbuh kembangnya pengetahuan dan riset interdisipliner. Selayaknya ekosistem, akademik perlu merawat spesialis dan generalis demi terciptanya kemajuan akademik yang kaya. Perubahan cara berpikir ini salah satunya berkat tekanan imperatif lingkungan hidup.

Russel mengatakan pendekatan lintas disiplin semakin mendesak akibat tekanan permasalahan lingkungan hidup (environmental imperative).[7] Sejak tahun 1960an, masyarakat industry modern telah menyaksikan perubahan dramatis dari kepedulian sosial atas isu lingkungan. Berkembangnya gerakan sosial lingkungan hidup turut menekan pemerintah untuk mengakui dan menyelesaikan persoalan lingkungan hidup yang diakibatkan oleh industri dan praktek sosial (gaya hidup) modern. Imperatif lingkungan hidup ini terlihat pada program ‘Manusia dan Biosfer’ dari UNESCO pada 1970an, Laporan Brundtland di 1980an dan Rio Earth Summit pada tahun 1990an.Lalu, Negara-negara merespon dengan membangun kementerian lingkungan hidup, meratifikasi perjanjian dan traktat isu-isu lingkungan hidup serta berpartisipasi pada pembangunan organisasi lingkungan hidup internasional. Salah satu indikasi meningkatnya kepedulian pada isu lingkungan hidup adalah bagaimana kemajuan pembangunan ekonomi ditekankan pada isu keberlanjutan.

Meskipun kepedulian meningkat, permasalahan lingkungan hidup semakin besar. Permasalahan ini terdokumentasikan di berbagai organisasi internasional seperti United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), UNFCC (Climate Change) atau UNDP. Permasalahan yang dihadapi dunia termasuk tapi tidak terbatas deforestasi, polusi air, tanah, udara, degradasi lahan subur, penggurunan, degradasi keanekaragaman hayati dll. Ketika persoalan tersebut dibenturkan dengan ancaman perubahan iklim, situasi menjadi semakin pelik. Semakin memanasnya dunia dan perubahan iklim akan menggoncang ekosistem disegala penjuru dan lapisan kehidupan.

Seirama dengan kesadaran politik, riset akademik mengkaji ‘lingkungan hidup’ turut meningkat. Walaupun sebelumnya kajian telah dilakukan di disiplin ilmu seperti biologi, geologi, hidrologi, geografi, arkeologi dll, Kesadaran untuk mengkombinasikan dan menghubungkan berbagai bidang pengetahuan tersebut datang baru-baru saja, terutama untuk mencapai aspek keberlanjutan pembangunan.

Aspek ini telah menjadi faktor pendorong yang merubah pola pikir riset lintas disiplin ilmu. Konsep dan upaya mencapai pembangunan berkelanjutan juga telah menarik perhatian pentingnya mengkombinasikan pengetahuan dari ilmu sosial dan alam. Kesalinterhubungan permasalahan lingkungan hidup juga mengakibatkan perlunya kerjasama inter dan intra institusi dari level lokal hingga global. Hasrat untuk memahami lingkungan hidup secara menyeluruh dan membangun solusi untuk mengatasi masalah lingkungan telah mengakibatkan proliferasi pusat kajian dan mata pelajaran yang fokus pada masalah lingkungan hidup. Ini adalah bentuk mengkristalnya transdisiplinaritas akibat tekanan imperatif lingkungan hidup.

Perspektif yang memfokuskan pada imperatif lingkungan hidup, mengakui permasalahan yang muncul hadir dalam konteks sosial dan alam yang terkait secara kompleks, penuh ketidakpastian dan tidak adanya batasan disiplin ilmu yang jelas. Lebih jauh lagi, mencari solusi untuk persoalan lingkungan hidup tidak hanya membutuhkan pemahaman atas lingkungan hidup dan ancamannya; tetapi juga harus mempengaruhi tindakan dan perilaku berbagai aktor di masyarakat.

Cara berpikir ini melihat solusi memerlukan produksi pengetahuan yang berdasarkan pendekatan sistemik menyeluruh ketimbang partial; tidak terkungkung oleh batasan pengetahuan yang ketat, bisa menghadapi kompleksitas dan ketidakpastian; dan mampu mengintegrasikan dan mengkomunikasikan pengetahuan diantara semua aktor dan antar bidang disiplin ilmu.

Pendek kata, pendekatan lintas disiplin penting dilakukan untuk mengatasi permasalahan yang timbul dimasyarakat. Serta tekanan imperatif lingkungan hidup telah menjadi salah satu faktor pendorong praktek transdisiplinaritas dan kajian lintas disiplin ilmu lainnya. Karena itu dikala upaya kita memperdalam spesialisasi di dalam disiplin ilmu kita, ada baiknya kita memberikan perhatian juga pada kajian lintas disiplin ilmu.

[1] Cummings, R. J. (1989). The Interdisciplinary Challenge. National Forum, 69: 2-3.

[2] Miles, L. (1989). Renaissance and Academe. National Forum, 69: 15-17.

[3] Russel, A.Wendy, Et.all. “Transdisciplinarity: Context, contradictions and capacity,” Futures 40 (2008) p.460

[4] Nissani, Moti, Ten cheers for interdisciplinarity: The case for interdisciplinary knowledge and research. Social Science Journal, 1997, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p201

[5] Nissani, ibid, p202

[6] Ruscio, K. P. (1986). Bridging Specializations: Reflections from Biology and Political Science. Review of Higher Education, 10: 29-45.

[7] Russel, A.Wendy, Et.all. “Transdisciplinarity: Context, contradictions and capacity,” Futures 40 (2008) p.463

Bella Ciao Lyrics

The song Bella Ciao was sung by the left-wing anti-fascist resistance movement in Italy, a movement by anarchists, communists, socialistsand other militant anti-fascist partisans. The author of the lyrics is unknown, and the music seems to come from an earlier folk song sung by riceweeders in the Po Valley. Another interpretation has been given following the discovery in 2006 by Fausto Giovannardi of the CD "Klezmer - Yiddish swing music" including the melody "Koilen" played in 1919 by Mishka Ziganoff. (


Una mattina mi son svegliato
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
Una mattina mi son svegliato
Eo ho trovato l'invasor

O partigiano porta mi via
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
O partigiano porta mi via
Che mi sento di morir

E se io muoio da partigiano
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
E se io muoio da partigiano
Tu mi devi seppellir

Mi seppellire lassù in montagna
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
Mi seppellire lassù in montagna
Sotto l'ombra di un bel fiore

E le genti che passeranno
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
E le genti che passeranno
Mi diranno: "Che bel fior"

È questo il fiore del partigiano
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
È questo il fiore del partigiano
Morto per la libertà


One morning I woke up
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
One morning I woke up
And I found the invader

Oh partisan, carry me away,
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
Oh partisan, carry me away,
For I feel I'm dying

And if I die as a partisan
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
And if I die as a partisan
You have to bury me

But bury me up in the mountain
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
But bury me up in the mountain
Under the shadow of a beautiful flower

And the people who will pass by
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
And the people who will pass by
Will say to me: "what a beautiful flower"

This is the flower of the partisan
O bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
This is the flower of the partisan
Who died for freedom

Sunday, February 14, 2010

Afghanistan Drug production and trade; as a global risk

Afghanistan has become the source and result for the world and regional risk. Ulrich Beck[1] stated that risk is anticipation of catastrophe or of possibility of future occurrences and developments. Thus, Afghanistan has the anticipation of catastrophe and the catastrophe occurred daily. One of the issue need to be mentioned is drugs production. Drugs production and trafficking constitute one of Afghanistan’s central domestic challenges. Afghanistan is one of the largest opium producers in the world, and the illegal trade of poppy is a quite dominant in the country’s economy system. Often, the profit of the poppy goes to the Taliban and the terrorist, thus financing the insurgency.

Drug trafficking is also a regional challenge for Afghanistan.[2] The large-scale criminal activities and incomes associated with regional drug flows act to undermine the states in the region: in this way Afghanistan’s neighbors – Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan in particular – are becoming weaker, more criminalized, more unstable and less able to function as constructive partners in Afghanistan’s process of stabilization.

Drugs trafficking from Afghanistan through Central Asia to Russia and Europe increased dramatically in the 1990s. The share of total production of Afghan opiates trafficked through Central Asia is estimated to be around 20 per cent.[3] Afghanistan in 2007 accounted for 93% of the global opiates market.[4] About 70 % of the production takes places in the southern regions bordering on Pakistan. Production in these areas has been increasing, whereas in central-northern Afghanistan (the regions bordering on Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), opium cultivation has diminished since 2005. For the Central Asian states, and particularly for the weakest among them, the impact of the drug trade has been significant. In the absence of a strong legal economy, the high profit margins of drug trafficking have a serious impact on the state and society. It clearly indicate failing nation building project that will make Afghanistan a safer haven for terrorist.[5]

Drug trafficking generates risk and affects the security of states and societies in various ways;

Firstly, drug trade affects human and societal security through increasing levels of addiction, petty crime and drug-related epidemics.
Secondly, drug trade exacerbates corruption in already weak states and infiltrates governments, thereby affecting the economic and political functioning of these states. The result is an incapacitated state unable to protect and ensure the rights of its citizens, and a loss of legitimacy, which in turn leads the population to question the idea of the state, thus resulting in a higher risk of instability.

Third, the drugs trade has become a growing threat to national, regional and international security in a military sense, through its linkages to violent non-state actors, including ideological and secessionist movements, and to terrorism.

Moreover, drugs production and trafficking had become “a low risk crop in a high risk environment”, that also brings food to the table for common Afghan. Thus, multilayered efforts need to be done in a multi layered areas by multi layered actors, in order to curb the Afghanistan drugs production and trafficking.

[1] Beck, Ulrich, World at Risk, Polity Press, UK, 2009, p.11

[2] Kjaernet,Heidi, Afghanistan and regional instability: a risk assessment, NUPI Report 2008, available at accessed at 15 November 2009.

[3] Interpol – Drugs Sub-Directorate. Heroin. available at accessed at 15 November 2009.

[4] Afghanistan opium survey 2007. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, October 2007. accessed at 15 November 2009

[5] Global Risks 2008 – A global risk network report, available at [] (accessed at 14 November 2009)

“Mendukung Penegakan Keadilan Hukum dan Menolak Pelemahan Pemberantasan Korupsi”

Bila keadilan hukum ditegakkan karena menguntungkan kepentingan penguasa dan sebaliknya diabaikan karena dianggap mengganggu kepentingan politik penguasa, maka pertanyaan mendasar adalah untuk siapa sebenarnya keadilan hukum itu?

Kasus perselisihan yang melibatkan Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK), POLRI dan elemen penguasa lain, mencerminkan bahwa hukum menjadi permainan para penguasa. Akibatnya, sisi keadilannya semakin suram. Hukum juga mudah dimanipulasi dan direkayasa, asal ia bisa memenuhi keinginan tertentu. Hukum ditegakkan sekaligus dilecehkan, seringkali mengabaikan sisi utamanya, yakni keadilan.

Yang sedang dipertontonkan hari-hari ini adalah bagaimana hukum tumpul menghukum para orang kuat, mantan pejabat dan koruptor, tapi tajam beringas menghukum kelas teri dan mereka yang serius ingin menciptakan bangsa ini bersih. Kesederajatan dalam hukum mulai dipunahkan oleh sikap arogan kekuasaan.

Kepekaan masyarakat terhadap penegakan hukum yang tidak seimbang muncul tidak secara tiba-tiba. Masyarakat memiliki perasaan yang tidak bisa dimanipulasi, bahkan dikendalikan. Atas itu semua, apabila jajaran penegak hukum masih sering bertindak di luar batas-batas kepekaan masyarakat, yang terjadi adalah kristalisasi ketidakpuasan dari berbagai penjuru. Bahaya paling besar dari perkara seperti ini adalah kemunduran yang luar biasa dari proses demokrasi yang sudah kita percayai untuk membangun bangsa ini.

karena itu. Kami Perhimpunan Pelajar Indonesia di Swedia dengan tulus dan ikhlas menyatakan sikap:

1. Mendukung segala upaya penegakan keadilan hukum dan pemberantasan Korupsi di Indonesia;

2. Menolak dan melawan segala upaya pelemahan pemberantasan Korupsi Indonesia;

3. Menuntut lembaga eksekutif agar menerapkan dan memperkuat kebijakan pemberantasan korupsi tanpa pandang bulu;

4. Menuntut lembaga legislatif agar meninjau dan memperkuat Undang-undang yang terkait, agar pemberantasan korupsi bisa berjalan dengan efektif;

5. Menuntut pihak Kepolisian dan Kejaksaan Agung untuk bertindak dan bekerja secara professional dan adil dalam menangani kasus pejabat KPK;

6. Mendukung pembentukan Tim Pencari Fakta Independen untuk mengusut kebenaran transkrip rekaman berisi kriminalisasi KPK diikuti dengan tindakan hukum yang tegas terhadap oknum-oknum yang terlibat apabila rekaman tersebut terbukti benar;

7. Mendukung KPK agar terus berupaya menuntaskan kasus-kasus korupsi besar terutama kasus Bank Century dan BLBI;

8. Menghimbau seluruh komponen masyarakat terus berpartisipasi dalam memperjuangkan upaya pemberantasan korupsi dan melawan upaya pelemahan pemberantasan korupsi di Indonesia.

Swedia, 4 Nov 2009

Aditya Muharam

Draft untuk Pernyataan Sikap PPI Swedia


On October 2nd 2009, in a meeting in Abu Dhabi, United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), represented by 114 state members, make a move celebrated by all Indonesian. First, they formally recognized Indonesia as the representative of the Indonesian Batik heritage. Secondly, they recognized Indonesian Batik as an Intangible Cultural Heritage. Following Indonesian Keris and the Wayang Puppet theatre already recognized in 2008.

UNESCO sees the Batik as the techniques, symbolism and culture surrounding hand-dyed cotton and silk garments known as Indonesian Batik permeate the lives of Indonesians from beginning to end: infants are carried in batik slings decorated with symbols designed to bring the child luck, and the dead are shrouded in funerary batik. Clothes with everyday designs are worn regularly in business and academic settings, while special varieties are incorporated into celebrations of marriage and pregnancy and into puppet theatre and other art forms.

Furthermore, I will try to describe the correlation between UNESCO recognition of Indonesian Batik as Intangible Cultural Heritage in a Globalization perspectives.

But we need to have a clear view on what is Globalization concept refers to. Indeed Globalization is a trending topic of today’s daily word. It grows the significance in the daily life of the people. The word was scarcely used before the late 1980s, even in academic circles, but today you can hardly open a newspaper without encountering the term. Some will refer Globalization to the entrenched and enduring patterns of interconnectedness. It suggests a growing magnitude or intensity of global flows. But how can we fit Batik recognition phenomena into the Globalization debate?

I will try to frame the concept based on Thomas Hylland Eriksen book “Globalization: the key concept.” He argues that to understand the word, it may be a good idea to mention a few things associated with globalization, either simplistically or wrongly. First, Globalization is just a new word for economic imperialism or cultural westernization. Although it is tautology true that rich countries are dominant, the situation is not static. The direction of transnational flows is not unilateral: some things flow from north to south, others from south to north, and there is also movement between east and west and within the south. Westernization is not a good synonym for globalization. At this point the recognition of batik by UNESCO may be seen as a proof the multi directional flows, from Indonesia, for the world. And it surely opened opportunity for increased flows of Batik as ideas, capital, goods and human resources for the world.

Secondly, Globalization means homogenization. To some extent homogenization occurred in a sense of standardization. Process of creating shared standards, comparability and ‘bridging principles’ of translation between formerly discrete and sometimes incommensurable world. Monetary economy, industrial production synchronization, and Microsoft word processors are a few example of standardization. Here we can see the UNESCO as the form of institutional standardization to define Intangible Cultural Heritage. Therefore, create the relatively heightened homage to the disperse and diverse heritage through out the world. Now we can say that thanks to UNESCO, Batik had leveled up its value of respect to the world stage.

Third, Globalization as a threat to local identities. At the very best this is a truth with serious modifications. To this point Batik could be seen as endangered, due to effects of globalization, uniformization policies, and lack of means, appreciation and understanding which – taken together – may lead to the erosion of functions and values of such elements and to lack of interest among the younger generations. But on the contrary, there are counteractions as well. Tendencies towards globalization beget strong, localizing counteractions favoring local food, local customs and so on. This is what may be called as Glocalization. The Local Batik as part of identities are strengthened because people begin to emphasize their uniqueness overtly only when it appears to be threatened. But this not to say that local power oftenly weakened as a result of globalization.

Indonesian dispersed in every corner of the world celebrates UNESCO’s move. In Sweden, Indonesian students organized by Indonesian Student Association-Sweden (PPI Swedia), wore batik as a gesture of homage to the long living heritage. They also take pictures in front of their campus, in city landscapes and actively promoting awareness to the locals regarding the batik. The shared imagination and festive unites students participated, namely from, Dalarna, Gävle, Goteborg, Luleå, Linköping, Lund, Malmo, Norrköping, Linkoping, Örebro, Stockholm, Uppsala and many other city.

In Goteborg, author city of study, the sheer excitement is manifold. Thousand of miles away from home, in a country best in lots of categories, students address their homesickness by bringing home to them. By wearing the batik and wearing it with proud. In front of Chalmers Teknisk Hogskola they gather to take lots of picture as a symbol of homage. Not to mention their active role in promoting Indonesia, using batik as an entry tool of discussion with the fellow students.

This, I will argue, Globalization in action. Student in foreign countries as a manifestation of increased flows of capital, goods, people, ideas, and technology is a beneficiary part of the Globalization. And they celebrate their locality of Indonesian Batik. The Globalization heightened up the local.


1. David Held & Anthony Mcgrew (eds.), 2007, Globalization Theory; Approaches and Controversies. Cambridge, Polity press.

2. David Held & Anthony Mcgrew (eds.), 2000, The Global Transformations reader; an introduction to the globalization debate. Cambridge, Polity press.

3. Eriksen, Thomas Hylland, 2007, Globalization. Oxford, Berg.